Linguistics:A Gist Of Syntax

Hi.May peace be upon you..
Before explaining about Syntax and Morphology, let's take a look at some major branches of linguistics.The purple text indicates the branches that I'll learn this semester.
Linguists explore all areas of human language. Some of the major branches of linguistics include:
  • Anthropological linguistics: Looks at how language and culture are connected.
  • Language acquisition: The process by which kids learn a first language or older folks learn a second language. Learning two languages at the same time from childhood is called bilingual language acquisition.
  • Historical linguistics: The study of the origins and evolution of language, especially the study of how languages change over time.
  • Language revitalization: The process of bringing languages that are no longer widely spoken back to life. Linguists don’t revitalize languages on their own, but they work closely with communities who seek to revitalize their languages.
  • Language typology: The study of the systematic patterns that are found in the languages of the world.
  • Morphology: The study of how meaningful parts of words combine with each other.
  • Neurolinguistics: The study of how language is related to brain function.
  • Phonetics: The study of what sounds the speakers of a language use and how they make them.
  • Phonology: The study of how the sounds of a language systematically combine to form patterns.
  • Pragmatics: The study of how language is used in interactive contexts such as conversation, email, and teaching.
  • Semantics: The study of how meaning is expressed through language.
  • Sociolinguistics: The study of how the form of language varies across different social contexts.
  • Speech perception: The process of perceiving speech sounds.
  • Speech production: You got it — the process of producing speech sounds.
  • Syntax: The study of how words and phrases combine to form sentences.

The study of how words and phrases combine to form sentences.

I've learnt the gist of syntax in the first semester.There is something called syntax tree diagram, rules of sentence,verb phrase, noun phrase, determiner etc. It's quite fun but complex and depressing at the same time.

First, what is syntax?
All language have syntax,although they are not the same. Aside from the definition above, syntax is basically  the structures of  sentences. And, you got to follow some structural rules in order to create a sentence that actually make sense.

House painted workers a the… this doesn’t make sense!
The workers painted a house... Ahh! Much better!

We can tell the first sentence doesn't make any sense, but the second sentence is perfectly fine. So let’s investigate what sentences are made up of in order to understand the structure.
Sentences are made up of smaller phrases. There are several difference types of phrase that can be used in a sentence, but the two phrases which must be used in a sentence for it to make sense are a noun phrase and a verb phrase.

They modify the and give  specific meaning. The determiner ‘the’ modifies the ‘workers’ because it lets us know which workers we are referring to. 
Noun Phrase
A noun phrase is usually the person or thing that is performing the verb in the sentence. It may also be the person or thing that the verb is being done to in a sentence.
The person doing the verb in a sentence is known as the subject. For example, in the sentence ‘Tom pushed the car’, 'Tom' is the subject of the sentence as he is pushing the door. 'The car' is the object in the sentence as the door is the object that the verb is being done to. Both of these are noun phrases.

A noun phrase has to be made up of a noun, such as a name or a tangible object. Sometimes, a determiner is needed in a noun phrase, for example ‘a cat’, ‘the dog’. 'A' and 'The' are called determiners because they tell us which person or thing is involved in the sentence.

Verb Phrases
Now that we have made some noun phrases, we can move on to verb phrases. The good news is a basic verb phrase can be made up of one word. The bad news is not every sentence has a basic verb phrase. The basic verb is pushed, we make a verb phrase by combining the verb and noun phrase.The example below shows the basic tree diagram for a simple sentence. There are many other rules used in  compound and complex sentence.But, let save that for another days.

* Disclaimer *
*With a little tweak and a bit of different example.*
I think this is only 5% of Syntax.or 10%. idk,maybe


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