Linguistics:A Gist Of Syntax
The study of how words and phrases combine to form sentences.
I've learnt the gist of syntax in the first semester.There is something called syntax tree diagram, rules of sentence,verb phrase, noun phrase, determiner etc. It's quite fun but complex and depressing at the same time.
First, what is syntax?
All language have syntax,although they are not the same. Aside from the definition above, syntax is basically the structures of sentences. And, you got to follow some structural rules in order to create a sentence that actually make sense.
House painted workers a the… this doesn’t make sense!
The workers painted a house... Ahh! Much better!
We can tell the first sentence doesn't make any sense, but the second sentence is perfectly fine. So let’s investigate what sentences are made up of in order to understand the structure.
Sentences are made up of smaller phrases. There are several difference types of phrase that can be used in a sentence, but the two phrases which must be used in a sentence for it to make sense are a noun phrase and a verb phrase.
They modify the and give specific meaning. The determiner ‘the’ modifies the ‘workers’ because it lets us know which workers we are referring to.
A noun phrase is usually the person or thing that is performing the verb in the sentence. It may also be the person or thing that the verb is being done to in a sentence.
The person doing the verb in a sentence is known as the subject. For example, in the sentence ‘Tom pushed the car’, 'Tom' is the subject of the sentence as he is pushing the door. 'The car' is the object in the sentence as the door is the object that the verb is being done to. Both of these are noun phrases.
A noun phrase has to be made up of a noun, such as a name or a tangible object. Sometimes, a determiner is needed in a noun phrase, for example ‘a cat’, ‘the dog’. 'A' and 'The' are called determiners because they tell us which person or thing is involved in the sentence.
Now that we have made some noun phrases, we can move on to verb phrases. The good news is a basic verb phrase can be made up of one word. The bad news is not every sentence has a basic verb phrase. The basic verb is pushed, we make a verb phrase by combining the verb and noun phrase.The example below shows the basic tree diagram for a simple sentence. There are many other rules used in compound and complex sentence.But, let save that for another days.
* Disclaimer *
The explanation above is cited from https://sites.google.com/a/sheffield.ac.uk/all-about-linguistics/branches/syntax/what-is-syntax.
*With a little tweak and a bit of different example.*
I think this is only 5% of Syntax.or 10%. idk,maybe